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Ecological Characteristics of Protected Areas
What are the ecological characteristics of a protected area - what species are present, what habitat types can be found, and what ecosystem services does it provide? How vulnerable are the species, how unique are the habitats and how might they be affected by change?
Protected Areas and Livelihoods
People interact with protected areas in many ways. People establish, govern and manage protected areas, and receive multiple benefits from protected areas. Protected areas help conserve biodiversity, provide important ecosystem services, and support human livelihoods and well-being. But people also exert multiple pressures on protected areas that can affect the conservation of biodversity and the provision of ecosystem services.
Management Effectiveness & Governance
How do we measure the effectiveness of management actions, and what are the decision making processes and structures that affect protected areas?